Release No: NR-188-16
May 30, 2016
Marine Pfc. James B. Johnson of Poughkeepsie, New York, will be buried May 31 in Arlington National Cemetery. In November 1943, Johnson was assigned to Company K, 3rd Battalion, 8th Marines, 2nd Marine Division, which landed against stiff Japanese resistance on the small island of Betio in the Tarawa Atoll of the Gilbert Islands, in an attempt to secure the island. Over several days of intense fighting at Tarawa, approximately 1,000 Marines and sailors were killed and more than 2,000 were wounded, but the Japanese were virtually annihilated. Johnson died sometime on the first day of battle, Nov. 20, 1943.
The battle of Tarawa was a huge victory for the U.S. military because the Gilbert Islands provided the U.S. Navy Pacific Fleet a platform from which to launch assaults on the Marshall and Caroline Islands to advance their Central Pacific Campaign against Japan.
In the immediate aftermath of the fighting on Tarawa, U.S. service members who died in the battle were buried in a number of battlefield cemeteries on the island. In 1946 and 1947, the 604th Quartermaster Graves Registration Company conducted remains recovery operations on Betio Island, but Johnson’s remains were not recovered. On Feb. 28, 1949, a military review board declared Johnson’s remains non-recoverable.
In June 2015, a nongovernmental organization, History Flight, Inc., notified DPAA that they discovered a burial site on Betio Island and recovered the remains of what they believed were 35 U.S. Marines who fought during the battle in November 1943. The remains were turned over to DPAA in July 2015.
To identify Johnson’s remains, scientists from DPAA and the Armed Forces DNA Identification Laboratory used Y-Short Tandem Repeat DNA analysis, which matched a nephew; laboratory analysis, including dental analysis, chest radiograph comparison, and anthropological comparison, which matched Johnson’s records; as well as circumstantial and material evidence.
DPAA is grateful to History Flight, Inc. for this recovery mission.
Of the 16 million Americans who served in World War II, more than 400,000 died during the war.
For additional information on the Defense Department’s mission to account for Americans who went missing while serving our country, visit the DPAA website at http://www.dpaa.mil or call 703- 699-1420703- 699-1420.